17 Eye Diseases Through Another's Perspective

Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the physical disturbance of the center of the retina called the macula.


Cataracts are a degenerative form of eye disease in which the lens gradually becomes opaque and vision mists over.

Color Blindness

Color blindness is not actually blindness in the true sense but rather is a color vision deficiency—people who are affected by it simply do not agree with most other people about color matching.

Diabetic Retinopathy and Macular Edema

Diabetic Macular Edema, DME, is caused by fluid accumulation in the macula. Patients with DME typically experience blurred vision which can be severe.

Eye Floaters and Eye Flashes

Floaters are small specks or clouds that move across your field of vision—especially when you are looking at a bright, plain background, like a blank wall or a cloudless blue sky.


Glaucoma occurs when a build-up of fluid in the eye creates pressure, damaging the optic nerve.

Retinal Detachment

When the retina detaches, light sensitive membrane in the back of the eye becomes separated from the nerve tissue and blood supply underneath it.


Uveitis is the inflammation of the inside the eye, specifically affecting one or more of the three parts of the eye that make up the uvea.

Retinitis Pigmentosa

A rare, inherited degenerative eye disease that causes severe vision impairment. Symptoms often begin in childhood. They include decreased vision at night or in low light and loss of side vision (tunnel vision). There's no effective treatment for this condition. Wearing sunglasses may help protect remaining vision.

Central Scotoma

The most common defect observed on macular visual field testing followed by paracentral scotoma. This can result from many diseases such as optic nerve disorders and damage or fluid in the retina around the macula.


Also called hemianopsia (we’ll use hemianopia here), is a type of vision loss that can happen after a stroke or brain injury which affects both eyes in the left or right side of the visual field. The amount of vision loss can be extensive or partial depending on where in the brain the injury occurred and the size of the area affected. There are several types of hemianopia.


Double Vision or Ghosted Vision

Can sometimes be a sign of serious problems such as a stroke, head injury, brain tumor, brain swelling or brain aneurysm. Temporary episodes of double vision can happen for many reasons, including drinking too much alcohol or being overly tired. This type of short-term double vision is usually not cause for worry.


With astigmatism, the front surface of the eye or the lens, inside the eye, is curved differently in one direction than the other. A common symptom is blurry vision. Treatments include prescription eyeglasses or contact lenses. Laser-assisted surgery, such as LASIK, also may help.


Nearsightedness tends to run in families. Faraway objects appear blurry. The condition may develop gradually or rapidly. Treatment options include eyeglasses, contact lenses, and surgery such as LASIK.

Hyperopia and Presbyopia

This is a common vision condition in adults. People with hyperopia must squint to see nearby objects. Reading, writing, computer work, or drawing for long periods of time may cause eye strain and headache. Treatment options include eyeglasses, contact lenses, and surgery such as LASIK.

Halos and Glare

Halos often show up when you’re in a dim or dark place. Glare is more likely in the daytime. They're a normal response to bright lights, but deeper problems can also bring them on such as cataracts, corneal scars, and uncorrected refractive error.